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Lane departure warning system

Система помощи движению по полосе

Система помощи движению по полосе (другие наименования – помощник движения по полосе, система удержания полосы движения) помогает водителю придерживаться выбранной полосы движения и тем самым, предотвращать аварийные ситуации. Система эффективна при движении по автомагистралям и обустроенным федеральным дорогам, т.е. там, где имеется качественная дорожная разметка.

Различают два вида систем помощи движения по полосе: пассивные и активные. Пассивная система предупреждает водителя об отклонении от выбранной полосы движения. Активная система наряду с предупреждением производит корректировку траектории движения.

У разных автопроизводителей система удержания полосы движения имеет свои торговые названия, но предлагаемые системы имеют, в основном, схожую конструкцию:

  • Lane Assist от Audi, Volkswagen, SEAT;
  • Lane Departure Warning System от BMW, Citroen, Kia, Ceneral Motors, Opel, Volvo;
  • Lane Departure Prevention от Infiniti;
  • Lane Keep Assist System от Honda, Fiat;
  • Lane Keeping Aid от Ford;
  • Lane Keeping Assist от Mercedes-Benz;
  • Lane Keeping Support System от Nissan;
  • Lane Monitoring System от Toyota.

Система помощи движению по полосе является электронной системой и включает клавишу управления, видеокамеру, блок управления и исполнительные механизмы. С помощью клавиши управления производится включение системы. Клавиша может располагаться на рычаге переключения указателей поворота, панели приборов или центральной консоли.

Видеокамера производит запись изображения на определенном расстоянии от автомобиля и его оцифровку. В системе используется монохромная камера, которая распознает линии разметки как резкое изменение градации серого. Камера объединена с блоком управления. Объединенный блок располагается на лобовом стекле за зеркалом заднего вида.

Исполнительными устройствами системы помощи движения по полосе являются контрольная лампа, звуковой сигнал, вибромотор на рулевом колесе, нагревательный элемент лобового стекла, электродвигатель электромеханического усилителя руля.

Информация о работе системы выводится на панель приборов в виде контрольной лампы. Предупреждение водителя производится с помощью вибрации рулевого колеса, а также подачи визуальных звуковых и световых сигналов. Вибрацию создает вибромотор, встроенный в рулевое колесо.

Нагревательный элемент располагается на ветровом стекле, при необходимости автоматически включается, устраняет запотевание и обледенение окна камеры.

Корректировка траектории движения осуществляется принудительным подруливанием системы рулевого управления с помощью электромеханического усилителя руля (большинство систем) или подтормаживанием колес с одной стороны автомобиля (система Lane Departure Prevention).

Во время работы активной системы помощи движения по полосе реализуются следующие основные функции:

  • распознавание траектории полосы движения;
  • визуальное информирование о работе системы;
  • корректировка траектории движения;
  • предупреждение водителя.

Обстановка перед автомобилем проецируется на светочувствительную матрицу камеры и преобразуется в черно-белое изображение, которое анализируется электронным блоком управления.

Алгоритм работы блока управления определяет положение линий разметки полосы, оценивает качество распознавания разметки, вычисляет ширину полосы и ее кривизну, рассчитывает положение автомобиля на полосе. На основании проведенных вычислений осуществляются управляющее воздействие на рулевое управление (тормозную систему), и если требуемый эффект удержания автомобиля на полосе не достигается – предупреждается водитель (вибрация рулевого колеса, звуковой и световой сигналы).

Необходимо отметить, что величина крутящего момента, прикладываемого к рулевому механизму (тормозного усилия на двух колесах с одной стороны автомобиля) невелика и в любой момент может быть преодолена водителем.

При преднамеренном перестроении с одной полосы на другую должен быть включен сигнал поворота, иначе система будет препятствовать маневру. При неблагоприятных условиях (отсутствие одной линии или всей разметки, загрязненное или заснеженное дорожное полотно, узкая полоса движения, нестандартная разметка на ремонтируемых участках, поворот малого радиуса) система деактивируется.

Предусмотрено три режима работы системы помощи движения по полосе:

Lane departure warning system

In road-transport terminology, a lane departure warning system is a mechanism designed to warn a driver when the vehicle begins to move out of its lane (unless a turn signal is on in that direction) on freeways and arterial roads. These systems are designed to minimize accidents by addressing the main causes of collisions: driver error, distractions and drowsiness. In 2009 the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) began studying whether to mandate lane departure warning systems and frontal collision warning systems on automobiles. [1]

Contents

Types

There are two main types of systems:

  • Systems which warn the driver (lane departure warning, LDW) if the vehicle is leaving its lane (visual, audible, and/or vibration warnings)
  • Systems which warn the driver and, if no action is taken, automatically take steps to ensure the vehicle stays in its lane (lane keeping system, LKS)

The first production lane departure warning system in Europe was developed by the United States company Iteris for Mercedes Actros commercial trucks. The system debuted in 2000, and is now available on most trucks sold in Europe. [2]

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In 2002, the Iteris system became available on Freightliner Trucks’ North American vehicles. In both these systems, the driver is warned of unintentional lane departures by an audible rumble strip sound generated on the side of the vehicle drifting out of the lane. No warnings are generated if, before crossing the lane, an active turn signal is given by the driver. [ citation needed ]

Sensor types

Lane warning/keeping systems are based on:

  • Video sensors in the visual domain (mounted behind the windshield, typically integrated beside the rear mirror)
  • Laser sensors (mounted on the front of the vehicle)
  • Infrared sensors (mounted either behind the windshield or under the vehicle) [3]

Timeline of available systems

Fiat is also launching its Lane Keep Assist feature based on TRW’s lane keeping assist system (also known as the Haptic Lane Feedback system). This system integrates the lane-detection camera with TRW’s electric power-steering system; when an unintended lane departure is detected (the turn signal is not engaged to indicate the driver’s desire to change lanes), the electric power-steering system will introduce a gentle torque that will help guide the driver back toward the center of the lane. Introduced on the Lancia Delta in 2008, this system earned the Italian Automotive Technical Association’s Best Automotive Innovation of the Year Award for 2008. Peugeot introduced the same system as Citroën in its new 308.

Lane departure warning systems combine prevention with risk reports in the transportation industry. Viewnyx applies video-based technology to assist fleets in lowering their driving liability costs. By providing safety managers with driver- and fleet-risk assessment reports and tools, it facilitates proactive coaching and training to eliminate high-risk behaviors. The Lookout Solution is used by North American fleets, and there is research on implementing a lane departure warning system via a mobile phone. [22]

Lane Keeping

Lane Keeping Assist is a feature that in addition to Lane Departure Warning System automatically take steps to ensure the vehicle stays in its lane. Some vehicles combine adaptive cruise control with lane keeping systems to provide additional safety.

While the combination of these features creates a semi-autonomous vehicle, most require the driver to remain in control of the vehicle while it is in use. This is because of the limitations associated with the lane-keeping feature. [23]

A lane keeping assist mechanism can either reactively turn a vehicle back into the lane if it starts to leave or proactively keep the vehicle in the center of the lane. Vehicle companies often use the term “Lane Keep(ing) Assist” to refer to both reactive Lane Keep Assist (LKA) and proactive Lane Centering Assist (LCA) but the terms are beginning to be differentiated. [24]

Vehicles

Requires driver control while vehicle is in use, but adjusts steering if vehicle detects itself drifting out of lane:

Year Make Model Style [25]
2013 Ford Explorer [26]
Fusion [27]
Lincoln MKS [28]
MKZ [29]
Toyota Prius [30]
2014 Acura RLX [31]
MDX [32]
Ford Explorer [33]
Fusion [34]
Taurus [35]
Infiniti Q50 [36] LCA
Lincoln MKS [37]
MKT [38]
MKZ [39]
Mercedes E-Class [40]
S-Class
Toyota Prius [41]
2015 Acura TLX [42] LCA
MDX [43] LCA
Audi A3 [44] LCA
A6 [45] LCA
TT [46] LCA
Cadillac ATS [47]
Chrysler 200 [48]
300 [49]
Dodge Charger [50]
Ford Edge [51] LKA
Explorer [52] LKA
F-150 [53] LKA
Fusion [54] LKA
Taurus [55] LKA
Honda CR-V [56] LCA
Hyundai Genesis [57] LCA
i40 [58] LCA
Lincoln MKC [59] LKA
MKS [60] LKA
MKT [61] LKA
MKZ [62] LKA
Mazda Mazda6 [63] LKA
Mazda_CX-5 [64] LKA
Mercedes Sprinter [65]
Škoda Octavia III [66] LKA
Toyota Prius [67]

Allows unassisted driving under limited conditions

Year Make Model Features
2014-2015 Infiniti Q50 Available fly-by wire autonomous steering, lane keeping, adaptive cruise control, and predictive accident avoidance. [ citation needed ]
2015 Mercedes C-Class, E-Class, S-Class autonomous steering, lane keeping, adaptive cruise control, parking, and accident avoidance. Semi-autonomous traffic assistant for speeds up to 37 miles per hour. [68]
Tesla Model S Part of the autopilot system released in 2015. This combines automatic lane change (after signal is applied), adaptive cruise control, and sign recognition to regulate speed and location. [69]
Volkswagen Passat Part of the driver assistance pack plus in the new VW Passat B8. It contains a traffic jam assist which is active up to 37 miles per hour. This system steers, brakes and accelerates. Another part is the emergency assist which takes complete control over the vehicle when the driver does not react anymore. The vehicle is brought autonomously to a complete stop without any driver intervention.
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Limitations

Lane Departure Warning Systems and Lane Keeping Systems rely on visible lane markings. They typically cannot decipher faded, missing, or incorrect lane markings. Markings covered in snow or old lane markings left visible can hinder the ability of the system. [23]

lane departure warning system

1 Lane Departure Warning (System)

Система LDWS снижает риск аварий при съезде с дороги, обусловленном усталостью или отвлечением внимания водителя.

Эта функция разработана для того, чтобы посредством вибрации в руле предупредить водителя о том, что видеокамера, смотрящая по направлению движения, обнаружила непреднамеренный уход с полосы движения.

2 Lane Keeping Aid

Абсолютно новый Focus это первое транспортное средство Ford, которое предлагает эту продвинутую функцию, расширяющую общую функциональность системы предупреждения о покидании полосы движения путем использования системы электрического усилителя руля (EPAS), чтобы активно вырулить транспортное средство обратно на полосу движения — вместо того, чтобы просто включить тревогу.

См. также в других словарях:

Lane departure warning system — A lane departure warning system (LDW) is a mechanism designed to warn a driver when the vehicle begins to move out of its lane (unless a turn signal is on in that direction) on freeways and arterial roads.The first production LDW system in Europe … Wikipedia

Lane Departure Warning — Der Spurhalteassistent (auch Spurassistent, engl. lane departure warning system (LDW)) warnt den Fahrer eines Fahrzeuges vor dem Verlassen der Fahrspur auf einer Straße. Hierbei sind unterschiedliche optische Systeme und Computer im Einsatz, mit… … Deutsch Wikipedia

Warning system — A warning system is any system of biological or technical nature deployed by an individual or group to inform of a future danger. Its purpose is to enable the deployer of the warning system to prepare for the danger and act accordingly to… … Wikipedia

Lane — The word lane has several meanings, including and especially: #a portion of a paved road which is intended for a single line of vehicles and is marked by white or yellow lines. #a narrow road or street, usually lacking a shoulder or a median;… … Wikipedia

Lane Keeping Support — Der Spurhalteassistent (auch Spurassistent, engl. lane departure warning system (LDW)) warnt den Fahrer eines Fahrzeuges vor dem Verlassen der Fahrspur auf einer Straße. Hierbei sind unterschiedliche optische Systeme und Computer im Einsatz, mit… … Deutsch Wikipedia

Precrash system — A precrash system is an automobile safety system designed to reduce the severity of an accident. Also known as forward collision warning systems they use radar and sometimes laser sensors to detect an imminent crash. Depending on the system they… … Wikipedia

Autonomous cruise control system — Schematic of Intelligent Cruise Control. The red car automatically follows the blue car. Autonomous cruise control is an optional cruise control system appearing on some more upscale vehicles. The system goes under many different trade names… … Wikipedia

Mobileye — N.V. Type Private held company Industry Automotive Founded 1999 Founder(s) … Wikipedia

Nissan Patrol — Manufacturer Nissan Production 1951–present Assembly Kyushu, Japan (Nissan Shatai Plant) The … Wikipedia

Automobile safety — is the avoidance of automobile accidents or the minimization of harmful effects of accidents, in particular as pertaining to human life and health. Numerous safety features have been built into cars for years, some for the safety of car s… … Wikipedia

Driverless car — The driverless car concept embraces an emerging family of highly automated cognitive and control technologies, ultimately aimed at a full taxi like experience for car users, but without a human driver.Driverless passenger programs include the 800 … Wikipedia

Autonomous car — For the wider application of artificial intelligence to automobiles, see Vehicle Automation. Junior, a robotic Volkswagen Passat parked at Stanford University. An autonomous car, also known as robotic or informally as driverless, is an autonomous … Wikipedia

Spurhalteassistent — Der Spurhalteassistent (auch Spurassistent, engl. lane departure warning system (LDW)) warnt den Fahrer eines Fahrzeuges vor dem Verlassen der Fahrspur auf einer Straße. Hierbei sind unterschiedliche optische Systeme und Computer im Einsatz, mit… … Deutsch Wikipedia

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Volvo Cars — Infobox Company company company name = Volvo Personvagnar AB Volvo Car Corporation company type = Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company foundation = 1927 by SKF, Assar Gabrielsson and Gustav Larson location = flagicon|Sweden Gothenburg, Sweden key… … Wikipedia

Advanced driver assistance systems — Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, or ADAS, are systems to help the driver in its driving process. When designed with a safe Human Machine Interface it should increase car safety and more generally road safety. Examples of such a system are: In… … Wikipedia

Subaru Legacy — Infobox Automobile name = Subaru Legacy aka = Subaru Liberty Subaru B4 Subaru Legacy B4 Subaru Legacy Touring Wagon manufacturer = Subaru predecessor = none parent company = Fuji Heavy Industries production = 1989 present size (1989… … Wikipedia

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